Time Series Analysis Using Spss 17 !NEW! Crack
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Brazil is known to serve as a key strategic country for trafficking cocaine from Latin to North America and Europe . In this regard, the central-west region (the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Goiás) is a recognized passageway for drug trafficking to the rest of the country and to foreign countries. According to a national household population survey, the central-west region currently shows the highest rates of use for both snorted and smoked crack cocaine and the highest prevalence of lifetime use for smoked cocaine .
A total of 1,305 patients were admitted to the Chemical Dependency Unit. Among them, 959 (73.5%) had a history of crack cocaine use, 693 were identified as eligible, and 600 were enrolled in the study (86.6%). All participants were previously informed about the objectives of the study, and provided written informed consent. The interviews were face-to-face in a private setting at the hospital. We modified and used with permission a questionnaire previously used in the National Research Study on Crack Use in Brazil . Data on sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and drug use profile were collected. After the interview, blood samples were collected from all participants for HIV serology and molecular analysis.
Many crack cocaine users are socioeconomically marginalized, and a large proportion live on the streets or in unstable housing conditions [21, 31]. In this study, one out of five crack cocaine users reported living on the streets within the last 6 months. Thus, this variable was considered a predictor of HIV-1 positivity, supporting the health and social harms related to crack cocaine use.
Abstract:Table olives are one of the most established Mediterranean vegetables, having an exponential increase consumption year by year. In the natural-style processing, olives are produced by spontaneous fermentation, without any chemical debittering. This natural fermentation process remains empirical and variable since it is strongly influenced by physicochemical parameters and microorganism presence in olive drupes. In the present work, Cypriot green cracked table olives were processed directly in brine (natural olives), using three distinct methods: spontaneous fermentation, inoculation with lactic acid bacteria at a 7% or a 10% NaCl concentration. Sensory, physicochemical, and microbiological alterations were monitored at intervals, and major differences were detected across treatments. Results indicated that the predominant microorganisms in the inoculated treatments were lactic acid bacteria, while yeasts predominated in control. As a consequence, starter culture contributed to a crucial effect on olives fermentation, leading to faster acidification and lower pH. This was attributed to a successful lactic acid fermentation, contrasting the acetic and alcoholic fermentation observed in control. Furthermore, it was established that inhibition of enterobacteria growth was achieved in a shorter period and at a significantly lower salt concentration, compared to the spontaneous fermentation. Even though no significant variances were detected in terms of the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, the degradation of oleuropein was achieved faster in inoculated treatments, thus, producing higher levels of hydroxytyrosol. Notably, the reduction of salt concentration, in combination with the use of starter, accented novel organoleptic characteristics in the final product, as confirmed from a sensory panel; hence, it becomes obvious that the production of Cypriot table olives at reduced NaCl levels is feasible.Keywords: fermentation; table olives; microbiological changes; organoleptic; physicochemical
The population of the NSDUH series is the general civilian population aged 12 and older in the United States. Questions include age at first use, as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drugs: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine (including crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, tobacco, pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. The survey covers substance abuse treatment history and perceived need for treatment, and includes questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders that allow diagnostic criteria to be applied. Respondents were also asked about personal and family income sources and amounts, health care access and coverage, illegal activities and arrest record, problems resulting from the use of drugs, perceptions of risks, and needle-sharing. Demographic data include gender, race, age, ethnicity, educational level, job status, income level, veteran status, household composition, and population density.
The questionnaire was significantly redesigned in 1994. The 1994 survey for the first time included a rural population supplement to allow separate estimates to be calculated for this population. Other modules have been added each year and retained in subsequent years: mental health and access to care (1994-B); risk/availability of drugs (1996); cigar smoking and new questions on marijuana and cocaine use (1997); question series asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17 (1997); questions on tobacco brand (1999); marijuana purchase questions (2001); prior marijuana and cigarette use, additional questions on drug treatment, adult mental health services, and social environment (2003); and adult and adolescent depression questions derived from the National Comorbidity Survey, Replication (NCS-R) and National Comorbidity Survey, Adolescent (NCS-A) (2004).
Survey administration and sample design were improved with the implementation of the 1999 survey, and additional improvements were made in 2002. Since 1999, the survey sample has employed a 50-state design with an independent, multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. At this time, the collection mode of the survey changed from personal interviews and self-enumerated answer sheets to using computer-assisted personal interviews and audio computer-assisted self interviews. In 2002, the survey's title was officially changed to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Participants have been given $30 for participating in the study since then. This resulted in an increase in participation rates from the years prior to 2002. Also, in 2002 and 2011, the new population data from the 2000 and 2010 decennial Censuses, respectively, became available for use in the sample weighting procedures. For these reasons, data gathered for 2002 and beyond cannot validly be compared to data prior to 2002.
Time Series analysis is a statistical procedure that deals with the ordered sequence of values of a variable at equally spaced time intervals. Time series data are collected at adjacent periods. So, there is a correlation between the observations. This feature distinguishes time-series data from cross-sectional data.
The study was approved by the Tel-Aviv University Ethics Committee on August 2, 2016, and all methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations. Medical files of all patients who were referred to an endodontics clinic between January 2015 and June 2017 were retrospectively screened for the presence of cracks. All teeth were examined by the same endodontic specialist. A cracked tooth was defined as a tooth diagnosed with complete or incomplete tooth cracks initiating from the crown and extending apically3,4,5. The presence of cracks had been confirmed by visual examination using magnification and illumination with a dental operating microscope (Kaps 1400; Karl Kaps GmbH & Co. KG, Wetzlar, Germany). The coronal restoration had been removed for observation and the tooth had been stained using methylene blue dye (Methylene Blue; Dudley Chemical Corp, New Jersey, USA) when indicated5. The teeth were selected for further data analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Teeth diagnosed with a complete or incomplete crack initiating from the crown and extending apically, based on a documented clinical and radiographic evaluation3,4,5 (Digora Classic Phosphor plate system; Soredex Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland), and confirmed by visual examination using magnification and illumination with a dental operating microscope5.
Based on these eligibility criteria, of a total of 285 teeth that were referred for endodontic treatment, the prevalence of cracked teeth was 28% (80/285), diagnosed in 34% (72/212) of the referred patients. Previous studies on the prevalence of cracks in non-endodontically treated teeth reported various results16,17. Krell et al.16 reported a prevalence rate of 9.7% of teeth with reversible pulpitis among 8,175 patients referred to a private endodontic practice over a period of six years, while Hilton and Ferracan17 reported that of 1,962 patients evaluated, 66.1% had at least one cracked molar. Possible reasons for these variations may be differences in the evaluated cohorts and in the methods used to diagnose and confirm the presence of the cracks. In Krell et al.16 the cracks were identified with direct transillumination and visualization, sometimes without magnification. The diagnosis of cracked teeth is not straight-forward because the symptoms are diverse, and crack lines may be difficult to identify5. The detection of a crack requires a valid reference standard for confirmation15,18,19. Therefore, in order to ensure the accuracy of the study, in the present study the method selected for verification of the cracked tooth was visual examination using magnification and illumination by a dental opera